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From biomass to value-added furan-based platform chemicals

The purpose of this roadmap is to look for new potential value chains and business opportunities for the Finnish industry, based on furan biorefinery concepts. It contains recommendations on how implementation of furan-based value chains can be carried out in near and long-term future. These recommendations are partly based on company interviews and workshop events carried out during the FURCHEM and CatBio projects.

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Contents

1. Background
2. State-of-the-art in bio-based furans
2.1. Biomass raw materials for furan compounds in Finland
2.2. Overview of furan chemistry and furan compounds
2.2.1. Furan chemistry
2.2.2. Furan compounds
2.3. Furans as fuel components
2.3.1. Current commercial compounds
2.3.2. Furanic compounds
2.3.3. Comparison of current commercial and furanic compounds
2.3.4. Market state-of-art
2.3.5. Catalysts in the production of furan fuel components
2.4. Succinic acid
2.4.1. Petrochemical route to succinic acid
2.4.2. Biotechnological route to succinic acid
2.4.3. Potential route from furfural to succinic acid
2.5. Production of furan dicarboxylic acid (FDCA)
2.5.1. Reaction routes to FDCA via HMF and HMF derivatives
2.5.2. Oxidation routes to aldaric acids
2.5.3. Reaction routes from aldaric acids to FDCA
2.6. FDCA applications
2.6.1. Terephtalic acid (TPA), isophtalic acid and furan(dicarboxylic acid)(FDCA) properties and markets
2.6.2. Polyesters from TPA vs. FDCA
2.6.3. Polyamides from TPA vs. FDCA
2.6.4. FDCA polymers as replacements to current polycarbonate materials.
2.7. Other furanic compounds in polymer applications
2.7.1. Thermoresponsive materials from Diels-Alder chemistry
2.7.2. 5-Bis(hydroxymethyl)furan
2.7.3. 2,5-Hydroxymethylfuroic acid
2.7.4. 2-vinylfuran
2.7.5. Furfuryl (meth)acrylate
3. Value chains to furan compounds – experimental and technoeconomic studies
2.8. Descriptions of selected processes
2.8.1. CatBio Process 1: From C5 sugars to 2-Methylfuran (Fuel components)
2.8.2. CatBio Process 2: From C5 sugars to succinic acid
2.8.3. Furchem Process: From C6 sugars to FDCA
2.9. Value chain calculation results
2.9.1. Summary of assumptions used in calculations
2.9.2. Summary of value chain calculation results
2.10.Sugar costs vs. predicted product value
2.11.Biomass source comparisons
4. Results of company interviews
5. Conclusions and recommendations
Appendix 1 Patent survey tables

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